In addition to measuring brain activity, brain researchers can nowadays influence brain activity. We call this 'brain stimulation'. There are different forms of brain stimulation. The simplest form is simply to offer stimuli. After all, your brain is activated by all kinds of stimuli and even by your own thoughts. But here, of course, we are talking about a more direct form of brain stimulation.
Brain stimulation can be invasive or non-invasive. Invasive brain stimulation is, for instance, 'deep-brain stimulation', where electrodes are inserted directly into deep brain structures in patients with Parkinson's disease, among others.
Non-invasive brain stimulation takes place without opening the skull. It can be done in two ways: with magnetic pulses or with electric current. With magnetic pulses the brain is stimulated by TMS. With electricity stimulation can be done with a strong current as with ECT, or with low intensity as with TCS.
Author: Tom de Graaf (translated by Thomas von Rein)